Manganese is considered an essential trace element, of which the average adult needs 2-5mg per day.
Actions of Manganese include:
- Essential component of carbohydrate metabolism, reproductive function, skeletal and cartilage development.
- Critical element in metalloenzymes pyruvate decarboxylase and superoxide dismutise that are involved in energy production and immune function.
- Activates phosphatases, kinases, decarboxylases and glycosyltransferases, facilitating the synthesis of protein and DNA in the production of mucopolysaccharides in cartilage.
- Alcohol detoxification. (Cirrhosis patients may not be able to properly excrete Manganese & should therefore avoid using Manganese supplements).
- Cartilage: essential for the production of optimal quantities of proteoglycans in cartilage, Osgood-Schlatter disease and Calve-Perth’s disease.
- Diabetes mellitus: Manganese activates the enzymes involved in the process of glycolysis.
- Epilepsy: Some forms may occur as a result of Manganese deficiency and Manganese can control seizures (Convulsions) in some cases.
- Osteoporosis: enhances bone growth by stimulating osteoblasts and suppressing osteoclasts.
- Tardive dyskinesia: prevention (15 mg/day) and treatment (60 mg/day) in patients taking phenothiazines.