Caffeine

woman-drinking-coffee-in-cafe

Is Caffeine Good Or Bad?

Now that designer coffee, hip caffeinated energy drinks and exotically flavored teas are quickly becoming the hallmarks of urban consumerism, the downside of increasing caffeine consumption is all too easy to dismiss. When I grew up in the 60’s, caffeine was frowned upon for those under sixteen, my parents frequently told me that “I had to wait until I got older” before I was allowed to have a coffee, yet just about everybody smoked and I was allowed to start smoking when I was fourteen, a ridiculous habit I kicked at twenty seven. A different story today, my fifteen year old daughter loves nothing more than a large energy drink yet smokers disgust her and suddenly it has become very “uncool” and disgusting to smoke yet it is fine to consume vast amounts of caffeine on a daily basis. How the times change. Let me tell you a bit about caffeine, how it can affect you and the upside as well as the downside. Then you can decide for yourself how much caffeine is right for you. This month is more the down-side, next month I’ll talk about tea and the upside of coffee.Before we go any further, relax, this article is not out to persuade you to give up coffee or tea. It is intended to help you become aware of how caffeine affects your health. I’ve heard it said that everything enjoyable is either “illegal, immoral or fattening” – well, caffeine is none of these. But you say: “ Eric, coffee smells so good, it tastes so good and it gives you such a boost, how can it not be good for you”, well it can be but it comes at a cost, there is always seems to be that downside to something that can make you feel so up. When I used to smoke it tasted good, it felt good and I felt cool. Until I discovered the downside – a morning cough, an expensive habit and yellow fingers, not to mention the high risk of developing cancer down the track. Temporary pleasure can equate to permanent misery folks, and with drinking upwards of five or seven cups of coffee a day you are cruising towards a whole raft of health concerns as you age.Typically, one cup of brewed coffee will give you about 100mg of caffeine, whilst the equivalent amount of tea has between 40-45mg. A can of fizzy cola drink has about 45mg, whilst a chocolate bar has 8mg (although it has other chemicals which react with the caffeine to give you a bigger buzz than you would expect from this amount of caffeine). Incredibly, the energy drinks that kids consume today leaves all the conventional caffeine products for dead – some can contain a whopping 200 mg of caffeine in just a 60ml serve. A less obvious source of caffeine are some pharmaceutical drugs, such as headache preparations, diuretics and slimming pills.

Energy Drinks

A popular drink containing more than twice as much caffeine as the average flat white is the latest weapon in the energy drinks war. An NZ company launched an “energy product” in May 2009 with the company’s director predicting that the potential market turn over as much as $1 billion a year. The energy drink market in USA has exceeded 3 billion dollars a year. The trend has been the source of growing concern among health researchers and school officials. Around the world, energy drinks have been linked with reports of nausea, abnormal heart rhythms and emergency room visits.
Energy drink manufacturers have already supersized cans and raised caffeine contents right up to their maximum legal limit in a bid to maintain their share of this highly competitive market. But the moves have raised concern among teachers and dieticians about the effects of such drinks on children. What is stunning is that a 60 ml shot of a popular energy “hit” at the supermarket counter can contain 200mg of caffeine and is being marketed as “a dietary supplement”, whilst the average flat white contains 80-100mg.  Most energy drinks are classed as “formulated caffeinated beverages” and limited to 320mg of caffeine per litre by the NZFSA (New Zealand Food Standard Authority).

Children and Caffeine

I personally have grave concerns about children’s brain and nervous system development and how caffeine affects their developing bodies and have seen the results first hand in the clinic, with parents calling or emailing me about the behavioural changes seen in teens hooked on caffeine. A good friend of mine developed a high quality mobile water purification unit (reverse osmosis) some years ago and gave one to a leading high school in the North Island on loan for a few months. The principal was delighted, with reports from teachers that nearly all the children were queuing up to refill their water bottles for free with the lovely pure water and were not having to purchase cola drinks from the vending machine in the canteen. Absenteeism was down, the children were concentrating better and were even displaying less rowdy behaviour. After about six weeks however, the major cola company called on the principal to ask for the machine to be removed or legal proceedings would follow as their sales were down significantly. Within weeks the children were back to drinking the fizzy black poison once again, absenteeism was up, children were less able to concentrate in the classroom and fights and rowdy behaviour ruled the playground once again. If we load children up with a drug that has a powerful affect on their nervous system how can we expect anything but? Does you child drink an energy drink? Then learn to say “NO” to energy drinks, I have always classified fizzy drinks as “liquid poisons” at home, and my children only drink water or dilute fruit juices like I did as a child. I have preached for years about the perils of rotten teeth, fat bellies and wrecked tummies and digestive systems resulting from these highly refined sugar laden beverages. That is not to say that they never consume a fizzy drink, they have become aware that regular and daily consumption of these “drinks” results in the eventual decline in health. Sorry folks, I’d rather you have a cup of good quality coffee than a fizzy drink any day, these soda drinks have absolutely no place in a health conscious person’s diet.

Coffee

Coffee has become almost synonymous with caffeine and much of the research about the effects of caffeine have focused on cof­fee. The rate of caffeine consump­tion in Australia and NZ has tripled since the 60’s, and this is because we now consume much more coffee than ever, and in addition get our caffeine from a much wider range of products. The consumption of caffeine-containing soft drinks has more than doubled in this time as well, adding to this concern are the growing number of young people who are acquiring a taste for caffeine. The range of caffeinated drinks, foods and snacks available to the consumer is truly staggering. I suppose the more stressed and fatigued we have come as a society in the 21st century, the more we are looking for that lift and stimulation offered by the widely available and acceptable drug called caffeine. Fatigue and coffee go hand in hand, and I have seen so many fatigued patients in the clinic for many years now who could not imaging giving up their morning cup. The absolute explosion of coffee shops and coffee stalls everywhere you look today around the developed world is a clear example of wherever there is a strong demand for a product or a service, a need will be supplied that can make a quick dollar. People with adrenal fatigue and burn-out often crave coffee, tea, cola or energy drinks because of the stimulatory effect of caffeine. The problem is that caffeine often over stimulates the stress and energy producing mechanisms of the body, leading to further fatigue when the caffeine wears off. Therefore, many women I see complaining of fatigue get through the day by kicking their adrenal glands into action every three to four hours by drinking several cups of coffee or tea daily or by combining coffee, sweets and chocolates (containing caffeine).Teenagers don’t need coffee, they have their own rocket fuel to give them their get up and go and will typically consume one or several cans of an energy drink daily along with two minute noodles, snack bars and sweets as their lives have also become increasingly hectic trying to cope with all the social pressures of cell phone texting and chatting and late night computer gaming. One parent told me that her daughter sent over three thousand texts in one month, that is more than 300 texts per day. As a teenager in the 70’s, I would go to bed at the “sensible” time of eight thirty, because the adult TV programs would come on and there were simply no other forms of entertainment or stimulation. Coffee, alcohol and the telephone belonged to realm of the adults, and computers? well, they were for the “brainy people” with university degrees. I don’t think our bodies and brains have simply evolved fast enough to keep up with the extreme technological demands placed on them, we have become over stimulated and place unbelievable expectations on ourselves and others today. Twenty years ago you would respond to a fax in a day or so with your business, today if you don’t reply to somebody’s email within the hour it is frowned upon! Is it any wonder that coffee, tea or energy drinks laden with caffeine have literally become the oil which lubricates an average person’s nervous system today?  Tell me the truth, how many people in your office don’t drink coffee or tea or have a wine or beer when they go home.

Health_Effects_of_CaffeineCaffeine affects your health in many ways

It surprises me how many health care professionals make many dietary and lifestyle recommendations for their patients: “Mrs. Smith, I would like you to take this medication or that vitamin pill or herb, eat this food and go on this diet, etc”…. but fail to curb or restrict the patient’s intake of caffeine. For example, coffee seems to worsen the symptoms of persons with high blood pressure; I have seen the coffee/high blood pressure link in several of my patients over the years, particularly coffee drinkers on blood pressure medications with poor anti-hypertensive control. Have you told your doctor, who placed you on a Beta blocker or other heart drug, that you drink coffee? I think you should. Because now you are taking a prescribed drug to regulate your BP, and in addition are drinking a drug every day which potentially “up regulates” your heart’s functioning. Coffee will worsen anxiety in those prone to anxiety (like me), it will worsen palpitations, increase the likelihood of insomnia and can potentially cause a whole raft of health concerns. Am I just “down on coffee”? No way, I love a nice hot cup at times but just feel it is important to heighten your awareness of what a brew can do.

William’s high blood pressure

Bill is a 62yr old sheep farmer from Hawke’s Bay who has been seeing me for the past two years to get his blood pressure under control with natural medicine. His doctor has had him on several different heart medications but has had to keep changing the prescriptions because he felt nauseous, tired, developed increasing palpitations and became very disillusioned with his doctor visits. I placed him on various herbs and supplements as well as a diet change but still could not help him regulate his BP. When I questioned Bill about his dietary and lifestyle habits all seemed above board. We tried magnesium, Omega3, Taurine, COQ10, and every trick in the book, all to no avail. Then one day his wife came in and sat with him during his consultation. I asked Mary to tell me about a typical day in Bill’s life, and the first thing she told me that for many years he had a freshly brewed pot of coffee all to himself before going out to check the sheep. We quickly bumped that habit on the head, but Bill suffered terribly with headaches for a whole week after he stopped coffee which shows you how he was addicted and dependent of caffeine which was underpinning his blood pressure. His BP is now a nice 130/72, which is a far cry from the uncontrollable 170/90 which he was averaging for several years, and – he is only taking Omega3. Do you have high blood pressure and drink coffee every day? Do you take drugs to control your BP and drink coffee? Then STOP all caffeine for one month and tell me how your blood pressure is, I’ll bet there is a reduction.

Janet’s anxiety and insomnia

Janet is 38yrs old and has suffered from anxiety and sleeping problems for most of her adult life. She also runs a highly successful and profitable coffee roasting and cafe business with her husband. Janet is a human dynamo and somehow finds the time to go to the gym most mornings, manage several café outlets and yet be a mum to two young children and a wife to John her new husband. Janet is very stressed and continually exhausted as she races from one café to another and then has to drop the kids off and pick them up after daycare, cooks dinner and then flops exhausted into bed and then can’t sleep as her mind races. She is quite irritable and snappy with her staff and husband, which is what I typically find in those who consume several strong brewed coffees a day. Janet cried as she mentioned to me that she has no libido and hates her life inspite of the success of her business. She had seen her GP who mentioned the word depression, but when she mentioned palpitations he also recommended that she visit a cardiologist, and recommended her to take 20mg of Fluoxetine daily (Prozac) which she refused. That is when she came to see me. I explained that the palpitations were caused from all that adrenalin which her body was producing in response to the caffeine and that it was highly unlikely there were any “heart problems”. Her GP did not even ask if she drank coffee.
It worked out that Janet was consuming between seven to ten cups of strong black coffee per day, in addition to the rum and coke she was having a few nights a week and her regular chocolate fix as well. You can imagine how all this caffeine adds up to a sizeable amount daily, up to an incredible 1000 milligrams per day. Janet was suffering from a huge caffeine overload, as we as several key deficiencies including B Vitamins, magnesium, iron, zinc and the important amino acid tyrosine. I have no doubt in Janet’s case that her huge caffeine load would have been lowering her body’s levels of nor-adrenalin. Nor-adrenalin is a neurotransmitter (brain hormone) which plays a critical role in regulating your moods, memory and behaviour and in addition has been found to be the brain’s own natural anti–depressant. Stress causes a major depletion of the body’s reserves of nor-adrenaline and paradoxically this is when most people increase their caffeine intake, further lowering their nor-adrenalin levels.
After many discussions with Janet and John, I persuaded them to get a manager in place and for Janet to take a back seat in the business. The change in Janet has been remarkable, her PMS, anxiety, depression, insomnia and irritability are all gone. And so is her coffee!

Weight and appetite issues

Caffeine also lowers the levels of thyroxine, a thyroid hormone which is vital for the production of nor-adrenalin. When you exceed 300mgs of caffeine daily (about three cups of coffee) you potentially start to effect your metabolism in several complex biochemical ways. Tyrosine is an important amino acid your body requires and obtains from protein foods like cheese and meats, it is also very important for the healthy functioning of the thyroid gland – which governs amongst other things. weight gain, metabolism and libido. Tyrosine also helps to regulate the blood pressure among other things. I have often found that coffee drinkers have varied appetites, they skip meals and often have a light breakfast then have to make up the calorie deficit at the end of the day, paving the way for weight gain.I truly believe that a cup or two is fine each day, especially between breakfast and lunch, and between lunch and dinner. But when you exceed two cups – watch out, you may become addicted quicker than you think!Let’s look at some of the physiological effects of caffeine on the body, you can then make up your own mind to still enjoy your cuppa, but in moderation.

 

  •  Exhaustion – Increased adrenaline levels, coffee can lead to a state exhaustion. This lead to problems such as a weakened immune response, anxiety and panic attacks and eventually depression as you get more and more fatigued, relying more on caffeine to pull you out of the hole.
  • Heart problems – Increased production of cortisol and adrenalin helps to constrict blood vessels and the heart has to pump harder, leading to high blood pressure. Palpitations are common.
  • Sleep disturbances –  making you sleepier and groggier when you get up in the morning, causing you to depend on coffee to get going! Ask yourself this; do you like a cuppa when you get up, first thing? Maybe your adrenal glands are in need of a tune-up; see your naturopath in that case!
  • Digestive problems – caffeine irritates the stomach lining, causing excessive production of stomach acid, leading to a variety of digestive disorders. Decaf is the same. Research has shown a definite link between coffee drinking and ulcers. Reflux of stomach acid into the throat (heartburn). Coffee irritates the stomach lining, causing excessive production of stomach acid and lead to a variety of digestive disorders and helps exacerbate irritable bowel syndrome.
  • Hormonal disturbances – Higher incidence of PMS and menopausal symptoms including tension, irritability, anxiety, fatigue, hot flashes, sleep disturbances, depression and breast tenderness.
  • Neurological disturbances – Headaches are one of the most common symptoms of excess caffeine and also of fluctuating caffeine levels throughout the day. They are also very common with withdrawal.
  • Nutritional deficiencies – Causes a significant loss of several vitamins and minerals, including vitamins B and C, calcium, iron, and zinc. Why? Coffee affects your stomach lining; reducing uptake of nutrients. You are probably in danger of becoming nutrient deficient; we can be test for deficiencies.
  • Behavioural disturbances – children who have a high caffeine intake in the form of chocolates and cola and energy drinks display higher levels of hyperactivity and anxiety.
References

  1. Caffeine, International Occupational Safety and Health Information Centre (CIS)
  2. Harry G. Brittain, Richard J. Prankerd (2007). Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients and Related Methodology, volume 33: Critical Compilation of pKa Values for Pharmaceutical Substances. Academic Press. ISBN 012260833X. http://books.google.com/?id=D3vBu5Tx4XwC&pg=PT15&lpg=PT15.
  3. Peters, Josef M. (1967). “Factors Affecting Caffeine Toxicity: A Review of the Literature”. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and the Journal of New Drugs (7): 131–141. http://jcp.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/7/3/131.
  4. Lovett, Richard (24 September 2005). “Coffee: The demon drink?” (fee required). New Scientist (2518). http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=mg18725181.700. Retrieved 2009-08-03.
  5. Maughan, R. J.; Griffin, J. (2003). “Caffeine ingestion and fluid balance: a review”. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics  (6): 411–20. doi:10.1046/j.1365-277X.2003.00477.x. PMID 19774754.
  6. Armstrong, LE; Pumerantz, AC; Roti, MW; Judelson, DA; Watson, G; Dias, JC; Sokmen, B; Casa, DJ et al. (2005). “Fluid, electrolyte, and renal indices of hydration during 11 days of controlled caffeine consumption.”. International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism  (3): 252–65. PMID 16131696.
  7. Thomas Vallombroso (2001). Organic Chemistry: Pearls of Wisdom. Boston Medical Publishing Corp. p. 48. ISBN 978-1584090168.
  8. Marshall Cavendish (2006). The Facts About Caffeine. Marshall Cavendish. p. 43. ISBN 9780761422426.
  9. Balentine D. A., Harbowy M. E. and Graham H. N. (1998). G Spiller. ed. Tea: the Plant and its Manufacture; Chemistry and Consumption of the Beverage.
  10. “All About Coffee: Caffeine Level”. Jeremiah’s Pick Coffee Co. http://www.jeremiahspick.com/caffeine-e-13.html. Retrieved 2009-08-03. Bolton, Sanford (1981).
  11. “Caffeine: Psychological Effects, Use and Abuse”. Orthomolecular Psychiatry  (3): 202–211. http://intraspec.ca/1981-v10n03-p202.pdf
  12. Bennett Alan Weinberg, Bonnie K. Bealer (2001). The world of caffeine. Routledge. p. 195. ISBN 0415927226. http://books.google.com/?id=YdpL2YCGLVYC&pg=PA195.
  13. Funk, G. D. (2009). “Losing sleep over the caffeination of prematurity”. The Journal of Physiology  (Pt 22): 5299–300. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2009.182303. PMID 19915211.
  14. Escohotado, Antonio; Ken Symington (1999). A Brief History of Drugs: From the Stone Age to the Stoned

Article first written by Eric Bakker ND –  16/06/2005 – last updated 31/12/2010

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